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Third Generation (3G) Wireless Technology

 

1.0   What is 3G?

Definition.

3G (Third Generation) is a generic name for a set of mobile technologies set to be launched by the end of 2001 which use a host of high-tech infrastructure networks, handsets, base stations, switches and other equipment to allow mobiles to offer high-speed Internet access, data, video and CD-quality music services.

3G Key words.

 

::

2G (Second Generation)

::

2.5G (Interim GSM Generation before 3G, after 2G - GPRS)

::

GPRS (General Packet Radio Service)

::

3G (Third Generation)

::

IMT-2000 (International Mobile Telecommunications 2000)

::

UMTS (Universal Mobile Telephony System)

::

CDMA (Code Division Multiple Access)

::

W-CDMA (Wideband CDMA)

::

FOMA (Freedom of Mobile Multimedia Access)

::

cdma2000

 

The wireless world is experiencing a revolution; with the imminent introduction of 3 rd    generation technology based on Wide Code Division Multiple Access (W-CDMA) we can expect a more sophisticated and diverse range of services than ever been offered before.

3G: Dive into the Multimedia Wave.

UMTS (Universal Mobile Telecommunications System) is a so-called "third-generation (3G)," broadband, packet-based transmission of text, digitized voice, video, and multimedia at data rates up to and possibly higher than 2 megabits per second (Mbps), offering a consistent set of services to mobile computer and phone users no matter where they are located in the world. Based on the GSM communication standard, UMTS, endorsed by major standards bodies and manufacturers, is the planned standard for mobile users around the world by 2002. Once UMTS is fully implemented, computer and phone users can be constantly attached to the Internet as they travel and, as they roaming service, have the same set of capabilities no matter where they travel to. Users will have access through a combination of terrestrial wireless and satellite transmissions. Until UMTS is fully implemented, users can have multi-mode devices that switch to the currently available technology (such as Gprs and Edge ) where UMTS is not yet available.

With UMTS, you will directly dive straight into the mobile multimedia wave

 

 
 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 


Today's cellular telephone systems are mainly circuit-switched, with connections always dependent on circuit availability. packet-switched connection, using the Internet Protocol (Internet Protocol), means that a virtual connection is always available to any other end point in the network. It will also make it possible to provide new services, such as alternative billing methods (pay-per-bit, pay-per-session, flat rate, asymmetric bandwidth, and others). The higher bandwidth of UMTS also promises new services, such as video conferencing. UMTS promises to realize the Virtual Home Environment  in which a roaming user can have the same services to which the user is accustomed when at home or in the office, through a combination of transparent terrestrial and satellite connections.

UMTS is a network consisting of two main elements connected over a standard interface, called Iu. These two elements are:

·        U-TRAN (UMTS Terrestrial Radio Access Network). This is composed of Node B which is equivalent to the GSM BTS and the Radio Network Controller (RNC) which is equivalent to the GSM BSC. A novelty with the U-TRAN concept is the existence of a new modulation scheme: the Frequency Division Duplex (FDD) and W-CDMA. This mode offers the highest efficiency within a single system whatever the conditions—wide area, urban, indoor coverage from outdoor, indoor, and so on. One carrier use 5 Mhz.

·        The Core Network. This is the equivalent of the GSM NSS. There are two options for the implementation of 3G and the evolution of the GSM Core Network:

o       ATM based architecture: this R'99 architecture may reuses in some cases the two-domain architecture of GSM/GPRS, with:

§         Iu-PS (Packet Switched) interface instead of Gb on the packet domain.

§         lu-CS (Circuit Switched) interface instead of A on the circuit domain.

o                                                     Transport Independent and multimedia architecture: this R'00 architecture is in line with the Next Generation Networks architecture and introduces separation of control and user planes. It also integrates multimedia capabilities.

 
Difference between regular TDMA and W-CDMA

 

 

 

 

 

 

 
Difference between regular CDMA and W-CDMA

 

 

 

 

 

W-CDMA makes possible a world of mobile multimedia

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

2.0         3G Network

Diagram of phases of standards development

Text Box:

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Standisation phase for naming and addressing in 3G  

Phase

SGSNs GGSNs etc...

Mobile terminals and external services

Network elements for IP multimedia

UMTS Release 99

R4

IPv4,  IPv6 optional

IPv4 or First IPv6 

First IPv6 application 

UMTS Release 00

R5

not yet decided, probably the same as R99

IPv4 and IPv6

(IPv6 exclusively for multimedia)

IPv6 exclusively

 

ITU-T

ITU-T is an international standards organization related to the United Nations that develops standards for telecommunications.  Two popular standards developed by ITU-T are the V series and the X series.

3.0   3G Concept Phone

3G: Applications, Services and Market

By offering their customers new user-friendly high-speed multimedia services, mobile operators will access new sources of revenues. 

Via their 2G/3G quad-band (900/1800/1900/2200 Mhz)  / dualmode multimedia mobile phones of tomorrow, users will access three main families of applications and services:

Always-onfor example, e-mail, personal organizer, traffic management, automation, sales, and so on.

Informationfor example, Web surfing, corporate Intranet, net games, music, news services, location, events and transportation services.

Purchasingfor example, on-line shopping, banking, gambling, ticketing.

It is projected that by 2004, outside North America, forty percent of e-commerce transactions with consumers will be initiated from a portable cellular-enabled service. Example;

4.0         3G Services

Services that will benefit from:

·         Higher bandwidth

·         Lower usage costs

·         Faster connect

Key Internet and wireless indicators

·         Usage, services and spending

Descriptions of popular 2G services

3G services assumptions

3G service categories: hierarchy and relationships

3G Services Vision

·         Voice/high quality audio

·         High-speed Internet access

·         Video conferencing and multimedia

·         Global roaming capability

·         One number, one mobile, home & office phone

·         Description and evaluation of major 3G Mobile and Fixed Wireless Data, Video, Voice and Multimedia Services in the context of bandwidth requirements, usage and acceptance limiters, product and service precedents, correlation to basic human needs, cultural and social conformity, mobility correlation, investments and modifications needed in related and supporting systems, and marketing and education effort.

o       Location related information and services

§         Travel/driving instructions

§         Physical locations/addresses

§         Identifying current location

§         Asset tracking

·        Messaging

§         E-mail, IM, fax, voice mail, conferencing, alerts, etc.

§         "Look At This" One-way Spontaneous Video Applications

§         Mobile e-commerce

o       Product & service purchases

o       Financial transactions/Payments

§         Remote Control/Monitoring

o       Dispensing machines

o       Home appliances, electronics

o       Office machines

o       HVAC

o       Security

o       Healthcare

o       Vehicle information

§         General Information

o       Product/service descriptions, pricing, availability

o       Travel

o       Sports

o       Stock/financial

o       News

o       Weather

o       Entertainment schedules/locations/reservations

§         Internet access and surfing

§         Corporate databases

o       Customer information

o       Order status

§         Messaging Document access

§         General Video

§         Entertainment

o       Audio (clips/streaming)

o       Video (clips/streaming)

o       Games and gambling

o       Books and magazines

§         New Product and Service Success Tests

o       Characteristics of successful new products and services

o       Applying success tests to 3G services

§         Maslow's Hierarchy of Human Needs

§         Differences between the Mobile Environment and the Desktop (Fixed) Environment

o       Characteristics of the Mobile Information Environment

§         Response rates

§         U.S. 3G Acceptance Influencers

o       Economic, social, cultural and telecommunications services

§         Mobility Correlation of 3G services

§         Individual Service Deployment Prerequisites and Usage/Acceptance Influencers

§         General Market Prerequisites

o       Carriers

o       Systems

o       Spectrum

§         Service Deployment Issues

o       Billing

o       Terminals

o       Content

o       Privacy/Security

o        

5.0    Marketing

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

GSM :   Worldwide Cellular Subscriber (CDMA+PDC+GSM+AMPS+ANALOGUE)

End of Year '00:     420.000.000

2000 vs 1999 = + 160 millions

Worldwide Cellular Subscriber forecast for 2001

in Millions          According to...

450

La Tribune (NOKIA) 03/01

535

Micrologic Research 03/01

480

Lehman Brothers 02/01

460

Goldman Sachs 02/01

510

Morgan Stanley 02/01

450-500

Nokia 02/01

450

Siemens 04/01

501

M Ericsson 02/01

502

Motorola 02/01

503

Le Monde 01/01

505

Schorder Salomon

506

Evli Securities 12/00

507

Dataquest 10/00

475

Merill Lynch
02/01

490

Deutsche Bank 02/01

450

Ericsson 03/01

450

Siemens 03/01

500

Motorola 03/01

507

Dataquest 03/01

506,5

Dataquest 03/01

690,4

Micrologic Research 03/01

616,7

Dataquest 10/00

586,2

Dataquest 03/01

507

Gartner 04/01

500

Gartner 06/01

 Worldwide Cellular market share 2000 and forecast for 2001

Technologies

 

% in 2000

in Millions

% in 2001 (Est)

in Millions

Nokia

30,7

128,3

29

142,1

Motorola

14,5

60,6

13,4

65,7

Ericsson

10

41,8

7,2

35,3

Siemens

4,8

20,1

9,8

48,0

Samsung

5,2

21,7

5,8

28,4

Mitsubishi

5,5

23,0

5

24,5

Alcatel

4,8

20,1

5

24,5

Panasonic

4,8

20,1

5

24,5

Nec

2,6

10,9

3,1

15,2

Kyocera

2,4

10,0

2,4

11,8

Philips

3,2

13,4

3

14,7

Sagem

3,3

13,8

3,8

18,6

Other

8,2

34,3

7,5

36,8

Total

 

418

 

490

Sales forecast per region in 2001

World : 490 millions (+ 23% vs 2000)

Asia : 170 millions (+ 31% vs 2000)

Wester Europe : 167 millions (+ 19% vs 2000)

North America : 90 millions  (+ 18% vs 2000)

latin America : 42 millions

Rest of Europe + Middle east + Africa : 38.2 millions (+ 23% vs 2000)

 

Revenue

GSM Subscriber revenue in 2000: 49.5 Euros

GSM Prepaid revenue in 2000: 15.3 Euros

Average revenue per GSM subscriber in 2000 (Europe): 35.5 Euros (43.5 in 1999)

Expected revenue per 3G Subscriber: 50 Euros

 

GSM handset market

Year 2000 (Full 12 months): 260 Millions

GSM PENETRATION in EUROPE (April'01) 

 

Germany.

Austria

Belgium

Denmark

Spain

Finland

France

Greece

Netherlands

Ireland

61

76.5

58

67.8

63

73.89

52.1

51

70

 67.5

Italy

Luxemburg

Portugal

United Kingdom

Sweden

Poland

Iceland

Island

Norway

Swiss land

75.2

70.5

68.6

70

77.50

25

77

70.4

83.81

65

 Handset sales in 2000 (Full year)

 Market share (September '00)

 

Mobile manufacturer judged by the distributors...

Notoriety of the brand  (Source Distribution Mobiles & filaires sept'00)

Reliability of the products

Help for sales / Sales support

 

Top 10 2G country ranked by Subscriber Base                  

 

Country

Subscribers

1.   Italy

36.450.000

2.  Germany

36.355.000

3.   United Kingdom

32.650.000

4.   France

24.295.200

5.   Spain

20.956.000

6.  Netherlands

9.020.000

7.   Sweden

5.885.657

8.   Portugal

5.450.859

9.   Austria

5.350.456

10. Greece

5.245.236

 

 The race to connect a Wireless Words (Year-end 99 in millions) 

Operator

Subscriber

Update

Vodafone group

28.4

 

China mobile

34.0

 

NTT DoCoMo

29.0

 

Verizon

19.8

 

France telecom/orange 

33.10

march 01

T-Mobile : DT

18.6

 

SBC

14.9

 

Telecom Italia

14.7

 

BT/ BT Wireless

13.2

 

Sonera

10.0

 

 

 Internet market

Internet / mobile / population comparison

 

General Internet market worldwide

 

General Internet market in Europe

 

Wap market

WAP is not advanced enough to compete with i-Mode because it is a harder language and can access fewer websites. However, WAP is good for accessing corporate information and converting it to the wireless Web. It is also important to know that Wap V1.2x is to be compatible with i-mode. Wap is using compact HTML.

Subscriber (08/31/2000)

Operator

Wap subscriber

Wap usage

BT

660.000

350.000 page visited per month

France Telecom

150.000

40 % active, 15 connections per month

Mannesmann

500.000

600.000 page visited per month

Orange UK

70.000

60min connection / sub / month

T-mobil

500.000

190.000 active user, 30 min / sub / month

Telefonica

200.000

 

Number of wap site: more than 12.000

Wap readable pages: more than 9 millions

Wap enabled handset in circulation: more than 65 millions

WAP 2.0 will support:

XHTML (WML2)

§TCP

§Color graphics

§Animation

§Large file downloading

§Location-smart services

§Pop-up/context sensitive menus

§Data synchronization with desktop PIM

 

I-mode market in Japan

According to a NTT DoCoMo user survey in September '00, most i-mode subscribers in Japan use their phones for Internet access and not for mobile telephony. 

The survey collected data from 3,898 users:

users spent 41.8% of all their time on the phone using e-mail features (including image exchange). 

Phone calls, represent 34.2% of the user's air time.

log-ons per user per month: 20 minutes

The information is a sharp change from the last company survey, conducted in March '00, that said users spent 39.6% of their time making calls and 38% of their time using e-mail. Reported by Jiji Press

Japan's mobile telephone subscribers:

Total cellular subscriber: 58 Millions subscribers ( Mach 2000. cell: 51,141,000 + PHS: 5,708,000)

  i-Mode phone used in Japan

I-mode Sign

 

 

Java in a i-mode mobile

 

Imode Mobile with 70 K Octet memory for Java Application (ie games)

Tech' tips 

NTT DoCoMo network is based on PDC-P technology (packet)

Rate: 9.6 Kbit/s

protocol: c-HTML (compact HTML)

Number of i-mode sites: More than 15.000

SMS Market

 in 2000:  20 billion messages per month 

in 2001: 40 billion messages per month

 

6.0   Licensing

 

3.0          

Status of UMTS license per country:

Country

License type / number

Issue of tender / license award

Commercial launch

License length (years)

Argentina

Auction/3

Q4-2001

Q2-2002

 

Arab states

in the GSM band

 

 

 

Austria

Auction/ 6

Completed 03/11/00

Q1-2002

20

Australia

Auctions

Completed

Q3-2002

 

Belgium

Auction*  / 4

Completed (only 3 awared)

2002

20

Brazil

2 / Beauty contest

Q4-2001

2002

 

Canada

Auction

2002 (2.5 G in 2001)

 

 

Chile

?

 

Q4-2001

 

Croatia

hybrid/3

Q4-2001

 

 

Czech Republic

Beauty contest /3

August 01/Sept-2001

 

 

Denmark

Auction /4

completed 09/01

2002

20

Estonia

Beauty / 4

on hold

 

 

Finland

Beauty/ 4

completed 04/99

Q1-2002

20

France

Beauty contest+32bFF /4 national

completed 06/01

Mid 2002

15

Germany

Auction/6

Completed 08/00

2002

20

Greece

Auction /4

11th July 01/End Q3-2001

Q1-2002

 

Hong Kong

hybrid /4

completed

Q4-2001

 

Hungary

4

Q4-2001

 

 

Isle of man

1 (manx tele.)

completed

 

15

Ireland

Beauty contest / 4

May -2001

Q2-2002

15/25

Italy

Auction+ beauty / 5

completed 11/00

2002

15

Israel

Auction*/3

July 01/ Q3-2001

2003

 

Jamaica

Auction/2

Q1-2002

2003

 

Japan

beauty contest /3

Completed 06/00

30th of May-2001

 

Korea

Beauty contest/2+1

Completed (-1)

June 2002

 

Latvia

Auction*/2

 

 

 

Liechtenstein

1 (viag)

Completed 02/00

?

 

Lithuania

Auction ?/ 2 ?

Q1- 2003

 

 

Lebanon

 

September 00

 

 

Luxembourg

beauty/ 4

Q4-01/Q1-02

 

15

Malaysia

contest

Q1-2001

 

 

Monaco

1 (Vivendi)

Completed

 

 

Netherlands

Auction/5

Completed 01/01

Jan 2002

15

New Zealand

Auction /3+1 (Maori trust)

Completed

2002

 

Norway

fee + beauty contest / 4

completed 12/00

 

15

Philippines

 

spectrum re allocation

 

 

Poland

auction /5

completed (3)

2002

 

Portugal

Beauty contest +fee /4

completed Q4'00

late 2002

15

Russia

2 per territory

Q4-2003

2004

25

Singapore

Auctions/4

May 2001

End 2003

 

Slovenia

Auction / 3

September 01

 

20

South Africa

Existing GSM /5

Q1-2001

 

 

Spain

Beauty contest / 4

Completed 03/00

1st August 2001

20

Sweden

Beauty contest / 4

Completed 12/00

2002

15

Switzerland

Auction /4

Completed 12/00

2002

15

Taiwan

Auction/5

Dec 01

 

15

Thailand

2

Completed

on hold

 

Turkey

Beauty/4

Mid 01 / Q4-2001

End 2002

 

United Arab Emirates

 

 

2004

 

United kingdom

Auction /5

Completed 04/00

Jan 2002

20

Uruguay

Auction

November 26th

 

20

U.S.A

Auctions

September-2004

 

 

Venezuela

4

August '01

 

 

*with minimum bid price

Hand phone Concept

 
World biggest collection of UMTS Phones

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Lucent new

Lucent

 

 
 

 

 

 

 


Nortel new

Nortel

 

 
 

 

 

 

 

 


Sagem new

Sagem

 

 
 

 

 

 

 

 

 


Telital new

Telital

 
 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 


NEC new

 

 
 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 


Bosch new

 

 
 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 


7.0 3G Actors

3G Network Vendors: Groups and JV (End '00)

ALCATEL + FUJITSU (Alcatel will hold 66 percent of the shares of the Evolium SAS, and Fujitsu will hold the rest)

SIEMENS + NEC (Mobisphere Ltd.,) + CASIO

MOTOROLA + CISCO + FIJITSU + PIONEER + ALCATEL (Alcatel RNC, MOTOROLA Node B)

SAGEM

 MITSUBISHI

 NOKIA + CISCO (IP Core network) + InterDigital

NORTEL + Matsushita/Panasonic + SAMSUNG

LUCENT (alone)

ERICSSON (alone)

CISCO+KPMG Cisco routeurs, KPMG consulting

Cornell University (electronic and mobile commerce services)

 

"Official"

3GPP

UMTS FORUM

Mobile Wireless Internet Forum (MWIF)

IUT

ETSI

GSA

IPV6Forum and IPv6.org

ASIA

FUJITSU

NEC

MITSUBISHI

PANASONIC

PIONEER

CASIO

NTT DoCoMo

TOSHIBA

Industry Links

Association of Radio Industries and Businesses (ARIB)

Canadian Wireless Telecommunications Association

Cellular Telecommunications Industry Association (CTIA)

China Wireless Telecommunication Standards Group (CWTS)

Citel

FCC

Global Mobile Suppliers Association (GSA)

Global System for Mobile Communications Association (GSMA)

Industrial Telecommunications Association (ITA)

Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, Inc. (IEEE)

Internet Engineering Task Force (IETF)

Latin American Wireless Industry Association (ALACEL)

Mobile Applications Initiative

MRP

National Emergency Number Association (NENA)

National Telecommunications & Information Administration

Personal Communications Industry Association (PCIA)

Standards Committee T1 Telecommunications

Telecommunications Industry Association (TIA)

Telecommunications Technology Committee (TTC)

Wireless Application Protocol Forum (WAP Forum)

Wireless Data Forum

 

8.0 3G Timescale

Whenever a new service is launched, there are a number of stages before it becomes reality. 

3G developments will include normalization, node b, RNC and core network development, network trials (ie japan), contracts placed, network deployment, availability of terminals, bearer service development, and so on....

3G Timescale:

Date

Milestone

Throughout 1999

3G radio interface definition.

2000

First 3G demo in vendors platform

May 2000

Approval of the IMT-2000 Recommendations by the ITU Radio communication Assembly 

Year 2000 - 2001

3G licenses  around Europe ( See licensing page)

Q4-2001

Very first 3g networks in Japan (1th of October). Very first 3GPP network based on pre release '99

Start of 2002

Basic 3G capable terminals begin to be available in commercial quantities. First release '00 (Release 5)

Throughout 2002

Network operators launch 3G services. Mass deployment. Use of paired spectrum.

2002 and 2003

New 3G applications. Full IP networks. Terminals become available & cheaper.

End 2004

3G will have arrived commercially and reached critical mass. Use of unpaired spectrum.

End 2005

3G Phase 2  spectrum expected to be available. (more than 3x5Mhz per operator, paired and unpaired, TDD)

2006

4G end of specification

 

9 Conclusion

3G networks: architecture, planning, migration, management, and optimization.

New 3G systems will trigger an explosion in wireless Internet and data applications by delivering far higher data rates than have ever been possible in wireless systems before. In Wireless Network Evolution: 2G to 3G, renowned wireless expert Vijay K. Garg covers key 3G standard and every technical issue associated with planning, management, and optimization of 3G systems. Garg reviews the fundamental principles underlying existing 2G systems, then offers specific, practical guidance on migration to 3G. Coverage includes:

Wireless Network Evolution: 2G to 3G will be an invaluable resource for every practicing telecommunications engineer and technical decision maker involved in 3G planning, deployment, or management.

Reference:

http://www.envoynetworks.com/ Envoy Networks is enabling the next generation of mobile multi-media and internet services by delivering carrier class wireless infrastructure equipment)

http://www.sasken.com/ (providers for 3G, GPRS, GSM Protocol Stack, GSM-GPRS & 3G reference design and  multimode solutions)

http http://www.itu.int/home/index.html

http://www.telecombulletin.com/index1.htm

http://www.telecombulletin.com/index1.htm

http://www.telecomnames.com/3g_info.htm

http://www.3g.co.uk/3GHomeStore.htm://www.3g-generation.com/what_is.htm